Sunday, November 8, 2020

Life Of a "Titan"(Planet)

 Life Of a "Titan"(Planet) C3H2 & C6H6 both react quite well with oxygen (O) & chlorine (Cl)


"NOVEMBER 6, 2020 BY MATT WILLIAMSTitan’s Atmosphere Has All the Ingredients For Life. But Not Life as We Know It
Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), a team of scientists has identified a mysterious molecule in Titan’s atmosphere. It’s called cyclopropenylidene (C3H2), a simple carbon-based compound that has never been seen in an atmosphere before. According to the team’s study published in The Astronomical Journal, this molecule could be a precursor to more complex compounds that could indicate possible life on Titan."

C3H2 & C6H6 both react quite well with oxygen (O) & chlorine (Cl)
My temporary conclusion is that titan mostly does not have a free radical system in the stratosphere,

Complex carbon's in the higher atmosphere suffering from a complex mix of:

Electrical ionic interference
Tough atmosphere ( Electrically & content of Metallic/Organic/Earth Catalysts dynamic to layers of the sky )
Mass, Weight, Density & excitation

Separation of Carbon;Hydrogen bonds 
Unification of Carbon;Hydrogen bonds 

Ground level complexity may well lead one to conclude a potential for basic bacteria & early earth fractal life (Types of plant/Alga)..

However complex Oxygen breathers? depends on environment (Shielded for example & volcanic;Elements;gases;water Sulphur/Metals & Mineral deposits)

Ionisation would be surprisingly frequent with dry atmosphere static charges & planetary dust,
However with high concentrations of carbon titan is surprisingly suggestive of cosmos dust contamination,

Alternative names for dust contamination are : 
Life generation solar mass explosions (NOVA)Inter System galactic cloud interception..Interplanetary pollination & Asteroid Inception

The ionosphere would mostly contain:

Ionisation would be surprisingly frequent with dry atmosphere static charges & planetary dust

Carbon dioxide
Hydrogen Oxide H²O & a bit lower HO² & HO 
(ionisation from electric interference from local planets & higher frequency light & gamma radiation)

helium (due to lower solar wind it may be captured there)

Rupert S https://science.n-helix.com
https://www.universetoday.com/148722/titans-atmosphere-has-all-the-ingredients-for-life-but-not-life-as-we-know-it/

https://mediarelations.uwo.ca/2020/10/29/titan-dragonfly-life/

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2020/nasa-scientists-discover-a-weird-molecule-in-titan-s-atmosphere/

https://www.almaobservatory.org/en/home/

https://wcg.n-helix.com  

https://science.n-helix.com/2020/04/cern.html - Masks & Filters

https://science.n-helix.com/2020/01/coronavirus.html

Additional data for further improvements:


Machine learning & Server improvement: Files attached please utilise.



Saturday, June 13, 2020

CryptoSEED Bug 2020(tm) - Patches chip flaw that could leak your cryptographic secrets : RND

CryptoSEED Bug 2020(tm) - Patches chip flaw that could leak your cryptographic secrets RND Security 2020-06-12

Core RNDSEED Security MEGA BOMB Hits all SSL Certificates #SecurityNEWS #RS

Patches chip flaw that could leak your cryptographic secrets RND Security possibly compromised


"Notably, memory addresses that have been accessed recently typically
end up cached inside the chip, to speed up access in case they’re
needed again soon, because that improves performance a lot. Therefore
the speed with which memory locations can be accessed generally gives
away information about how recently they were peeked at – and thus
what memory address values were used – even if that “peeking” was
speculative and was retrospectively cancelled internally for security
reasons."

flaws are to cache for :

According to the theory of the cure ? Clear cache, As par my meltdown
fix XOR is a potential solution,
However crypto keys frequently seed from cache data.. Leaving a
massive security flaw in the entropy pool.
So what do we do ?
Potentially we AES a pool of Data hashes.. Hashing a key with a re-sort?
In short so like this X = cache buffer For Length 16 to 64KB Fragment
& Sort by Factor Xn

Factor Xn is Ram Fullness = 32Bit Integer * %CPUUsage as fraction of 100

Hash is then plausibly meaningless by viable for RND Random

Factor Xn is then fed into a roll loop to factor Cryptic key RND

Meaning that the cache clear fix can potentially reveal MASSIVE
Random/Entropic pools

(free for Linux Kernels & RND Seed Generators based upon Ubuntu Code (the Ubuntu code can be donations of Support & Development,Money or service & specifically does not have to be GPL but Ubuntu is charitable : RS)

(c) Rupert Summerskill



RDRAND & RDSEED & EGETKEY


CVE-2020-0543
In the case of the Special Register Buffer Data Sampling bug, or
CVE-2020-0543, the internal data that might accidentally leak out –
or, more precisely, be coaxed out – of the processor chip includes
recent output values from the following machine code instructions:

RDRAND. This instruction code is short for ReaD secure hardware RANDom
number. Ironically, RDRAND was designed to produce top-quality
hardware random numbers, based on the physics of electronic thermal
noise, which is generally regarded as impossible to model
realistically. This makes it a more trusted source of random data than
software-derived sources such as keystroke and mouse timing (which
doesn’t exist on servers), network latency (which depends on software
that itself follows pre-programmed patterns), and so on. If another
program running on the same CPU as yours can figure out or guess some
of the random numbers you’ve knitted into your recent cryptographic
calculations, they might get a handy head start at cracking your keys.

RDSEED. This is short for ReaD random number SEED, an instruction that
operates more slowly and relies on more thermal noise than RDRAND.
It’s designed for cases where you want to use a software random number
generator but would like to initialise it with what’s known as a
“seed” to kickstart its randomness or entropy. An attacker who knows
your software random generator seed could reconstruct the entire
sequence, which might enable or at least greatly assist future
cryptographic cracking.

EGETKEY. This stands for Enclave GET encryption KEY. Enclave means
it’s part of Intel’s much vaunted SGX set of instructions which are
supposed to provide a sealed-off block of memory that even the
operating system kernel can’t look inside. This means an SGX enclave
acts as a sort of tamper-proof security module like the specialised
chips used in smart cards or mobile phones for storing lock codes and
other secrets. In theory, only software that is already running in the
enclave can read data stored inside it, and can’t write that data
outside it, so that encryption keys generated inside the enclave can’t
escape – neither by accident nor by design. An attacker who could make
inferences about random cryptographic keys inside an enclave of yours
could end up with access to secret data that even you aren’t supposed
to be able to read out!

Intel patches chip flaw that could leak your cryptographic secrets
12 JUN 2020


"Vulnerability

Previous: Facebook paid for a 0-day to help FBI unmask child predator
by Paul Ducklin
This week, Intel patched a CPU security bug that hasn’t attracted a
funky name, even though the bug itself is admittedly pretty funky.

Known as CVE-2020-0543 for short, or Special Register Buffer Data
Sampling in its full title, it serves as one more reminder that as we
expect processor makers to produce ever-faster chips that can churn
through ever more code and data in ever less time…

…we sometimes pay a cybersecurity price, at least in theoretical terms.

If you’re a regular Naked Security reader, you’re probably familiar
with the term speculative execution, which refers to the fact that
modern CPUs often race ahead of themselves by performing internal
calculations, or partial calculations, that might nevertheless turn
out to be redundant.

The idea isn’t as weird as it sounds because modern chips typically
break down operations, that look to the programmer like one machine
code instruction, into numerous subinstructions, and they can work on
many of these so-called microarchitectural operations on multiple CPU
cores at the same time.

If, for example, your program is reading through an array of data to
perform a complex calculation based on all the values in it, the
processor needs to make sure that you don’t read past the end of your
memory buffer, because that could allow someone else’s private data to
leak into your computation.

In theory, the CPU should freeze your program every time you peek at
the next byte in the array, perform a security check that you are
authorised to see it, and only then allow your program to proceed.

But every time there’s a delay in finishing the security check, all
the microarchitectural calculation units that your program would
otherwise have been using to keep the computation flying along would
be sitting idle – even though the outcome of their calculations would
not be visible outside the chip core.

Speculative execution says, amongst other things, “Let’s allow
internal calculations to carry on ahead of the security checks, on the
grounds that if the checks ultimately pass, we’re ahead in the race
and can release the final output quickly.”

The theory is that if the checks fail, the chip can just discard the
internal data that it now knows is tainted by insecurity, so there’s a
possible performance boost without a security risk given that the
security checks will ultimately prevent secret data being disclosed
anyway.

The vast majority of code that churns through arrays doesn’t read off
the end of its allotted memory, so the typical performance boost is
huge, and there doesn’t seem to be a downside.

Except for the inconvenient fact that the tainted data sometimes
leaves behind ghostly echoes of its presence that are detectable
outside the chip, even though the data itself was never officially
emitted as the output of a machine code instruction.

Notably, memory addresses that have been accessed recently typically
end up cached inside the chip, to speed up access in case they’re
needed again soon, because that improves performance a lot. Therefore
the speed with which memory locations can be accessed generally gives
away information about how recently they were peeked at – and thus
what memory address values were used – even if that “peeking” was
speculative and was retrospectively cancelled internally for security
reasons.

Discernible traces
Unfortunately, any security shortcuts taken inside the core of the
chip may inadvertently leave discernible traces that could allow
untrusted software to make later inferences about some of that data.

Even if all an attacker can do is guess, say, that the first and last
bits of your secret decryption key must be zero, or that the very last
cell in your spreadsheet has a value that is larger than 32,767 but
smaller than 1,048,576, there’s still a serious security risk there.

That risk is often compounded in cases like this because attackers may
be able to refine those guesses by making millions or billions of
inferences and greatly improving their reckoning over time.

Imagine, for instance, that your decryption key is rotated leftwards
by one bit every so often, and that the attacker gets to “re-infer”
the value of its first and last bits every time that rotation happens.

Given enough time and a sufficiently accurate series of inferences,
the attackers may gradually figure out more and more about your secret
key until they are well-placed enough to guess it successfully.

(If you recover 16 bits of a decryption key that was supposed to
withstand 10 years of concerted cracking, you can probably break it
216 or 65,536 times faster than before, which means you now only need
a few hours.)

What about CVE-2020-0543
In the case of the Special Register Buffer Data Sampling bug, or
CVE-2020-0543, the internal data that might accidentally leak out –
or, more precisely, be coaxed out – of the processor chip includes
recent output values from the following machine code instructions:

RDRAND. This instruction code is short for ReaD secure hardware RANDom
number. Ironically, RDRAND was designed to produce top-quality
hardware random numbers, based on the physics of electronic thermal
noise, which is generally regarded as impossible to model
realistically. This makes it a more trusted source of random data than
software-derived sources such as keystroke and mouse timing (which
doesn’t exist on servers), network latency (which depends on software
that itself follows pre-programmed patterns), and so on. If another
program running on the same CPU as yours can figure out or guess some
of the random numbers you’ve knitted into your recent cryptographic
calculations, they might get a handy head start at cracking your keys.
RDSEED. This is short for ReaD random number SEED, an instruction that
operates more slowly and relies on more thermal noise than RDRAND.
It’s designed for cases where you want to use a software random number
generator but would like to initialise it with what’s known as a
“seed” to kickstart its randomness or entropy. An attacker who knows
your software random generator seed could reconstruct the entire
sequence, which might enable or at least greatly assist future
cryptographic cracking.
EGETKEY. This stands for Enclave GET encryption KEY. Enclave means
it’s part of Intel’s much vaunted SGX set of instructions which are
supposed to provide a sealed-off block of memory that even the
operating system kernel can’t look inside. This means an SGX enclave
acts as a sort of tamper-proof security module like the specialised
chips used in smart cards or mobile phones for storing lock codes and
other secrets. In theory, only software that is already running in the
enclave can read data stored inside it, and can’t write that data
outside it, so that encryption keys generated inside the enclave can’t
escape – neither by accident nor by design. An attacker who could make
inferences about random cryptographic keys inside an enclave of yours
could end up with access to secret data that even you aren’t supposed
to be able to read out!
How bad is this?
The good news is that guessing someone else’s most recent RDRAND
values doesn’t automatically and instantly give you the power to
decrypt all their files and network traffic.

The bad news, as Intel itself admits:

RDRAND and RDSEED may be used in methods that rely on the data
returned being kept secret from potentially malicious actors on other
physical cores. For example, random numbers from RDRAND or RDSEED may
be used as the basis for a session encryption key. If these values are
leaked, an adversary potentially may be able to derive the encryption
key.

And researchers at the Vrije University Amsterdam and ETH Zurich
have published a paper called CROSSTALK: Speculative data leaks across
cores are real (they did come up with a funky name!) which explains
how the CVE-2020-0543 flaw could be exploited, concluding that:

The cryptographically-secure RDRAND and RDSEED instructions turn out
to leak their output to attackers […] on many Intel CPUs, and we have
demonstrated that this is a realistic attack. We have also seen that
[…] it is almost trivial to apply these attacks to break code running
in Intel’s secure SGX enclaves.

What to do?
Intel has released a series of microcode updates for affected chips
that dial back speed in favour of security to mitigate these
“CROSSTALK” attacks.

Simply put, secret data generated inside the chip as part of the
random generator circuitry will be aggressively purged after use so it
doesn’t leave behind those “ghostly echoes” that might be detected
thanks to speculative execution.

Also, access to the random data generated for RDRAND and RDSEED (and
consumed by EGETKEY) will be more strictly regulated so that the
random numbers generated for multiple programs running in parallel
will only be made available in the order that those programs made
their requests.

That may reduce performance slightly – every program wanting RDRAND
numbers will have to wait its turn instead of going in parallel – but
ensures that the internal “secret data” used to generate process X’s
random numbers will have been purged from the chip before process X+1
gets a look in.

Where to get your microcode updates depends on your computer and your
operating system.

Linux distros will typically bundle and distribute the fixes as part
of a kernel update (mine turned up yesterday, for example); for other
operating systems you may need to download a BIOS update from the
vendor of your computer or its motherboard – so please consult your
computer maker for advice.

(Intel says that, “in general, Intel Core-family […] and Intel Xeon E3
processors […] may be affected”, and has published a list of at-risk
processor chips if you happen to know which chip is in your computer.)"

Friday, April 24, 2020

HPC Render Layer priorities - Science;Research:Cinematic:Movie:Design & Gaming

HPC - Render Layer priorities - Science;Research:Cinematic:Movie:Design & Gaming

A List sorted for functional use in Programming:Science:Gaming:RS

https://science.n-helix.com/2020/04/render.html

The truth is the image & 8/7/6/5/4/3D Holograph/Sound/Wave/Field/Polygon standards:

(Standard Physics Model) for processing data (scans,XRay's,Ultra sound,Sonar: for example)
Are basic standards Implemented by the GPU Processor format support,
Vulkan,OpenGL:ES,DirectX,Mainframe,PC,Mac,Phone & Console

Logic necessitates maths: 
Float & Integer : Dynamic,Precision,High precision,Compressed,Half & Lossless compression optimised bit range & masking(for example XOR & AVX,Vector)

Feature sets of the Standard CL_C++ divide,

Simple instruction parallel SiMD,AVX,Vector
from Float & Integer FPU full instruction set

However the supported standard algebra objects : A>Z : Sign standards like planks,
Are to be defined first.

Function call priority:

1: Memory defined maths objects : MDMO : Float,Integer & static

2: Functions by class : SiMD(Vector), Float instructions FPU & Integer instructions

3: Having defined these, We call on Vulkan,OpenGL,Metal,DirectX for supported object classes:
Images,Audio,Polygon's & other objects defined by GPU standards (compression standards for example).

Minimising calls : Parallel Identity instructions: OpenCL,Direct Compute & at the same time,
Call OpenGL,Vulkan,Metal,DirectX,Console code,

The initiated GPU standards called : OpenGL,Vulkan,Metal,DirectX,Console code..
To aquire format standards supported, Do not mean that we have to use the standard on CL_C++/C#,
Acquiring the supported definitions simply means : Usable & Load/Save available.

Order as defined below: Display the HPC Science requirements for Research,Render,CAD,Cinema,Movies,Gaming

Dual execution, Single or multiple source RAM objects; Initiated though resource allocation & management.

AMD,IBM,NVidia,Intel,Sony,Microsoft,Linux,Apple: Follow the model: Dynamic Managed execution & timing assessment with pre-fetch anticipatory cache: L1,L2,L3

(c)Rupert S

>>

A List sorted for functional use in Programming:Science:Gaming:RS

https://science.n-helix.com/2019/06/kernel.html } Bios : compute : HPC
https://science.n-helix.com/2018/09/hpc-pack-install-guide.html } Without HPC software & this stack nothing works BIG

Over arch API standard SDK core code:
https://www.khronos.org/openkode/

User Interaction:
https://www.khronos.org/streaminput

Display & windows:
https://www.khronos.org/openwf

Media protocols & data collection + camera & video:
Audio, Video & Media encoding standards and hardware, Data collection, Process & Save
https://www.khronos.org/openkcam
https://www.khronos.org/openmaxdl

https://www.khronos.org/sycl   }
https://www.khronos.org/opencl } 3x load:code research data exploitation:Render & save+optimise+compress

https://www.khronos.org/collada/ } Dynamic data sets of precise 4/3D assets for study.
https://www.khronos.org/nnef }
https://www.khronos.org/gltf } : 2x for input & output render & data

3D data & photo input standards & compression, Data Sets

https://www.khronos.org/anari

Dispite the priority of high accuracy, Particular to research & CAD conception,

The priority of introduction to Cinematic render makes Gaming a priority,

Particularly in light of RayTrace & WebRender : WebGL, OpenGL:ES & Virtual Systems & VM

https://www.khronos.org/spir - Priority pixel & Vector & Ray-trace 8




https://www.khronos.org/opencl } 3x load:code research data exploitation:Render & save+optimise+compress

https://www.khronos.org/openxr } Extrapolation of rendered data in ML,AI & Analytics

High priority data exploration & utilisation & save:

Data base       }
https://www.khronos.org/collada/ } Dynamic data sets of precise 4/3D assets for study.
https://www.khronos.org/gltf } : 2x for input & output render & data

3D data & photo input standards & compression, Data Sets

https://www.khronos.org/opencl } 3x load:code research data exploitation:Render & save+optimise+compress

ANARI

Analytic Rendering Interface for Data Visualisation

Launched in November 2019, the Khronos Analytic Exploratory Group is now ANARI™, an official Working Group under Khronos governance. This new Analytic Rendering Interface API will streamline data visualisation development for any company creating scientific visualisation rendering engines, libraries and applications. ANARI will free visualisation domain experts and software developers from non-trivial rendering details while enabling graphics experts to avoid domain-specific functionality and optimisations in their rendering backends.

OpenMAX AL (Application Layer)

OpenMAX AL provides a standardized interface between an application and multimedia middleware, where multimedia middleware provides the services needed to perform expected API functionality. OpenMAX AL provides application portability with regards to the multimedia interface.

OpenMAX IL (Integration Layer)

OpenMAX IL serves as a low-level interface for audio, video, and imaging codecs used in embedded and/or mobile devices. It gives applications and media frameworks the ability to interface with multimedia codecs and supporting components (i.e., sources and sinks) in a unified manner. The codecs themselves may be any combination of hardware or software and are completely transparent to the user. 
Without a standardized interface of this nature, codec vendors must write to proprietary or closed interfaces to integrate into mobile devices. The principal goal of the IL is to give codecs a degree of system abstraction using a specialized arsenal of features, honed to combat the problem of portability among many vastly different media systems.

OpenMAX DL (Development Layer)

OpenMAX DL defines an API which contains a comprehensive set of audio, video and imaging functions that can be implemented and optimized on new processors by silicon vendors and then used by codec vendors to code a wide range of codec functionality. It includes audio signal processing functions such as FFTs and filters, imaging processing primitives such as color space conversion and video processing primitives to enable the optimized implementation of codecs such as MPEG-4, H.264, MP3, AAC and JPEG. OpenMAX supports acceleration concurrency via both iDL, which uses OpenMAX IL constructs, and aDL which adds asynchronous interfaces to the OpenMAX DL API.

glTF (Image format for 3D objects & subject work)

WebGL has Faster Load Times with glTF’s GLB Format versus Json :

The glTF format GLB loads and saves & loads Vertice vectors at upto 4x the speed,The model is included in the Vulkan Render Layers Initiative & enables computes of 3D/4D/<>8D Models that we need for gaming & research,
Quantum Code can also use the model as it saves considerable time making lattice models..
Suggested standard practice for space & clock cycle; High performance gaming saving gaming.

Tessellation will be faster & Vector Vertice processing faster with a lighter memory footprint.


Rupert S https://science.n-helix.com

Sunday, April 12, 2020

CERN-Filter & Masks

Centred Energy Reactive carboN : CERN-Filter , Masks & Clothing Material

Patents : (c)RS

(Save the health and shop community and health workers in NGO such as https://www.msf.fr)
(Donations appreciated!)

(The best formula we believe in at CERN & Boinc & WCG)

Packs of 10 to 100 of masks in this design free distribution too all customers with a subscription of 1 year & or a product of prestige from your play store..

(By recognition your sympathies and donations of contribution to the science community are most appreciated.)

Masks & Filters, Industrial Filters & protective materials : RS

Created in layers of fine mesh filer carbon between layers of water/energy absorbent/retentive/expulsive silicon gel fibre cloth,

at 1/3mm to 4mm thick the face masks & machine filters are intended to reduce and balance atmosphere in situation where: Water, Chemical, Solvents, Dust & germs/Bio-matter are present & a cause of problems,

The solution is created by the LHC team

(c)RS

at 1/2mm to 20mm C.E.R.N Reactive Materia is designed to shield bodies from many threats,
A layer of refraction though light materials on top & polarising light fields & OLED mesh..
The creation of Synergy System Dynamic Logic.

O.L.E.D Formula for display technology : (c)RS

O.L.E.D Display technology : Advanced Harden HDR LED:
Layer of bouncy silicone fibre vine mixed with very fine carbon fibres,
Layer of hardened transparent material, GEM
Layer of detective material (very fine) & O.L.E.D
Layers of bouncy silicon plastic (elastic) and very fine carbon fibre..
piercing conductive surface circuit..

Cooling layer Metallic radiator & electrostatic-VRBase 4 cone speaker (very thin)
Layer of cooling material for strengthening display.
Components.
Layer cooling & protective.

(c) Rupert S

https://lhcathome.cern.ch

https://home.cern/

https://boinc.n-helix.com/dl/boinc_7.16.5_windows_x86_64.exe

https://boinc.n-helix.com/dl/boinc_7.16.6_macOSX_x86_64.zip

****

Medicine : Ventilator : CERN are developing revolutionary HEV : High Energy Ventilator(tm)


You might want to ventilate asthma & burn patients as-well as other patients with ventilation issues such as astronauts & divers,
Serious topics such as ventilation & filtering in nuclear radiation zones & biological hazards.
These features are proposed to be included & researched.

https://is.gd/ProcessorLasso

A team of experts at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland, the operator of the largest particle physics lab in the world, is developing a stripped-down medical ventilator for patients suffering with COVID-19.

Known as the High Energy Ventilator, or HEV, the device could be used to help treat patients with mild forms of the disease, or those who are in the recovery phase, freeing up more advanced machines for more severe cases. The design was proposed by a team of physicists from the LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment and has been designed with "ease of deployment in mind."

The device is based on components that are simple and inexpensive to source, and can be powered with batteries, solar panels, or emergency generators, making it easy to deploy in areas with limited resources.

https://www.newsweek.com/cern-stripped-down-ventilator-covid-19-patients-batteries-weeks-1497025

https://science.n-helix.com/2020/01/coronavirus.html

http://science.n-helix.com/2015/07/sacrifice-and-nobility.html

http://science.n-helix.com/2018/09/hpc-pack-install-guide.html

http://science.n-helix.com/2017/04/boinc.html

http://science.n-helix.com/2020/01/float-hlsl-spir-v-compiler-role.html

http://science.n-helix.com/2019/06/vulkan-stack.html

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Single Photon : Patent Table

"Breakthrough in 2D Material that Produces Single Photons"

Interesting article, have you found a way to emit them serially ..

Patent Table : (c)RS

The speed is relevant to the production of fibre optic cables.
Also for the study of light, Angle and computation,

Single file photon : fibre optic transmission, Parallel & Serial messaging, Signalling ..
Parallel Photonic Fibre Optic & Serial Photon Fibre Optic,

Multi complex coded fibre & axis air transfer,
Multi Axis Data transfer though filter matrix & crystal.

Secret messaging, Space & Satellite inter-spacial transmission & Earth to space ..
Orbital translation..
Axis & Angle calculations, Space calculations,
Body scanners.

(c)Rupert S https://science.n-helix.com/2017/08/quantum-plasma.html

https://www.energy.gov/science/bes/articles/no-strain-no-gain-breakthrough-2d-material-produces-single-photons

 "No Strain, No Gain! Breakthrough in 2D Material that Produces Single Photons

FEBRUARY 4, 2020

Home » No Strain, No Gain! Breakthrough in 2D Material that Produces Single Photons
A false-color scanning electron micrograph of the array used to create deterministic single photon sources in epitaxial tungsten diselenide. The inset shows the Hanbury-Brown Twiss interferometry measurement proving quantum emission.
A false-color scanning electron micro-graph of the array used to create deterministic single photon sources in epitaxial tungsten diselenide. The inset shows the Hanbury-Brown Twiss interferometry measurement proving quantum emission.
Image courtesy of Michael Pettes, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Used with permission from AIP Publishing.
The Science
Quantum information technologies need materials that can produce a regular stream of single particles of light (photons). Two-dimensional materials are made of single layers of coordinated atoms. Recent research has shown that these 2D materials may have potential as light sources that emit light as single photons. Scientists discovered a new method to generate single photons. They used strain (a system’s response to an applied force) in a 2D material made of tungsten and selenium. By grafting a thin film of the WSe2 onto an ultra-sharp tip made of silicon dioxide, they created specific, well-separated spaces on the thin film that created photons.

The Impact
Generating photons one at a time is essential for quantum communications and certain types of quantum computing. Being able to control thin-film materials so they emit single photons at precise locations will pave the way for scientists to develop quantum materials for use outside of the lab. Previously, scientists didn’t know the mechanism for creating this effect. In addition, it wasn’t possible to produce these materials on a larger scale. The fact that researchers will be able to scale up these 2D tungsten/selenium thin films makes them potentially useful for manufacturing quantum technologies.

Summary
Scientists discovered a new method for developing sources that emit light as single photons (quantum emitters) by exploiting strain in a two-dimensional material. This method creates spatially localized and well-separated emission sites in a continuous tungsten/selenium thin-film. The film is created by a multi-step diffusion-mediated gas source chemical vapor deposition technique, then transferred onto an array of ultra-sharp silicon dioxide tips. Because the film is very thin, it conforms to the radius of the tips and bends towards the substrate by more than a few percent. The resulting strain is enough to change the electronic structure, but only at the tips. The affected area emits light of a different color and nature than light from the rest of the film. The team observed bound exciton lifetimes that were one order of magnitude longer compared to emissions that were intrinsic to the film. Single photon generation at the tip apex was confirmed by a laser technique called Hanbury-Brown-Twiss quantum interferometry. Future studies looking at the role of mechanical deformation in creating these quantum emission sites may enable a route to control quantum optical properties with strain. While engineering of quantum emission in two-dimensional materials is still at an early stage, this research provides a path toward scale-up to larger quantum material systems.

Contact
Michael Pettes"

Monday, February 24, 2020

FPU double precision : mathematical errors: Thoughts and questions

FPU double precision mathematical errors: Thoughts and questions  


https://lhcathome.cern.ch/lhcathome/forum_thread.php?id=5317

Double precision maths is luckily the modern CPU core FPU feature..
Precision of 2 errors over 1000000 result will mean one or two errors per trillion calculations,
However feasible perfectly error free results are..
The net result is believably within the error factor posed by Intel guidelines.

Error free incites perfect pre-fetch and super class stability,
The facts remain the same on error count:

AVX float buffer overrun,
FPU Buffer overrun.
Rounded results.

Most plausibly a buffer over run.
Consistently very high precision numbers require a 180 bit buffer...
Around 16KB stack buffer should prevent overflow (per result)
Compressing the resultant into a compressed memory zip saves data space.

(c)Rupert S

perhaps this will help: http://science.n-helix.com/2018/01/integer-floats-with-remainder-theory.html

http://science.n-helix.com/2019/05/compiler-optimisation.html

http://science.n-helix.com/2018/06/compression-libraries-index-prime.html

http://science.n-helix.com/2020/01/float-hlsl-spir-v-compiler-role.html

"My priority is to publish "IEEE 754 as intended - or how to
obtain identical double precision floating-point results".

SixTrack LHC@home is running well but tasks are
still being taken rather slowly and I reckon we use,
at best, one third of your provided capacity. Still your
support is vital for the High Luminescent LHC studies.

Personally I have a couple of issues:
I need to access old migrated data to define SixTrack
performance and this is a problem right now.
While the Invalid result error rate is in general very low,
24 Invalid and over one million valid today, I need to
identify the genuine computational errors.

You can find my recent CERN Open Days presentation at
http://mcintosh.web.cern.ch/mcintosh/
along with the state of my research.
Eric Mcintosh"

Monday, January 27, 2020

Coronavirus

Examination of Corona virus :



https://science.n-helix.com/2020/04/cern.html - Masks & Filters

Apparent symptoms "fever, coughing and muscle aches"

Possible sources of infection ..Sweat .. possibly if mixed with infected blood/puss
Breath? "possibly cough"

Infected meat ?
"Corona virus is complex and most probably has a low heat sensitivity"

"Possibly responds to cool air well & low humidity"
Rupert S

"Thailand has confirmed its fifth case of the new Corona virus.

"The patient is a 33-year-old woman from Wuhan on vacation," deputy public health minister Sathit Patucha told Reuters, adding she was under quarantine at Rajavithi hospital and her condition was improving.

The woman arrived in Bangkok on Tuesday with her daughter and visited a private hospital complaining of a fever, coughing and muscle aches before being transferred to a government hospital on Thursday.

Her daughter tested negative for the virus.
Samuel Osborne
24 January 2020 10:44"

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/coronavirus-news-live-death-toll-latest-symptoms-wuhan-uk-china-us-sars-a9299716.html

Symptom statistics: 99 patients minority report

99 had Inflammation of lung tissue & high liquidity issues
82 had fever
81 had a cough
31 had shortness of breath
11 had muscle ache
nine had confusion
eight had a headache
five had a sore throat

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2820%2930211-7/fulltext

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2930211-7

Features of the disease Corona Virus China throughout the active phase:

Can include multiple organ failure & Auto-immune response/overload on rare cases.

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30183-5/fulltext

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2930183-5

Further details : Corona:

Infection occurs before symptoms most probably & also during infection symptom display
Incubation period 5 days to 2 weeks, Infection rate probable around 3% per hour..
"Based on the first 425 confirmed cases in China, each infection led to 2.2 others on average"
"mortality rate potential 2% to 3%"

https://apnews.com/910032f504fd6931ec1750939c4e862d

SARS2 > CoronaVirus19: Mitigation strategy: Examination & Treatment logic:

To be clear the major reliable cause of death is Immunodeficiency such as AIDS & factors such as poverty (Low nutrition, Hunger, Famine),

In the case of old people the major factors are the decline of immune system function and low regeneration of healthy cells (Often caused by bad diet,Sanitation & mental spirit).

"Bat out of HELL"

Current research links COVID-19 to certain types of bat as the original source,
BEWARE TREADING ON THE FEET OF THE FALLEN - "Slayeth not the living"

RS

Systemic BioShock: Operation Hazard


Systemic Immunity system overload: In principle is when the immune system encounters a threat that when broken down;

Produces toxicity inside the body
Principally hard to remove proteins..
Heavy metals & poisons..

Poison Damage examples:
Enzymes (For examples snake venom)
Poisons : Also snake venom & spiders
Metals, Alkaloids & acids

Germs & Viruses also produce these effects:

Germs on breakdown or while eating, reacting or fighting the body & biologic fauna..
Or converting elements, Compounds.

RS

Hospitalised patients with severe respiratory infections;

Cases with acute respiratory infections in hospital or long-term care facilities;

Patients with acute respiratory infections or influenza-like illness in certain outpatient clinics or hospitals in order to assess the extent of virus circulation in the population;

Elderly people with underlying chronic medical conditions such as lung disease, cancer, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, liver disease, diabetes and immune-system compromising conditions such as AIDS & Age/health/poverty related Immune system deficiency.

Corona & a distinct likeness to new variant flu , information for felicity concerning corona and lung capacity of particularly old people with low immune systems for example asthma,

Regarding the matter of new variant cold like viruses,The potential effects on the immune system exist exasperated by the potency to affect the system..As the common cold affected the southern world,

Unlike the common cold in south america..The symptoms are alleviated by the experience the immune system, lymph nodes and body chemistry and biology experienced in a rough violent world of chaotic disharmony,

In other words the world at large and the cold, virus, germs and flue bacterial chaos of modern evolved travel and large populations on the move.

Luckily the symptoms are not so rare that most people are unaware of the common signs...
However broken systems do not hold so well,

Clearly loved people will suffer, Hopefully not too much!

Lung fluid & Acid in SARS2 infection:

"You effectively have fluid pouring into your lungs.”

The presence of typically blood-borne immune cells in the lungs of some patients can, Jacobson said, also produce extreme inflammation and out-of-control immune responses, which have been observed in some coronavirus cases.

But another genetic tendency this work revealed was up-regulation in the production of hyaluronic acid. This compound is slimy to the touch. In fact, it’s the primary component in snail slime. And it has the remarkable property of being able to absorb 1000 times its own weight in water.

The team also discovered evidence of down-regulated genes in COVID patients that might otherwise have kept hyaluronic acid levels in check. So with fluid inundating the lungs and gels that absorb those fluids being over-produced as well, a coronavirus patient’s lung, Jacobson said, “fills up with a jello-like hydrogel.”

“One of the causes of death is people are basically suffocating,” Jacobson said.

Vitamin D observed deficiency in COVID-19 patients is also explained by the group’s research, could play a role in future COVID-19 therapies."

Solutions:


Non bio growth generating Ventolin (symptom lung capacity)Clearing the lungs with lightly sprayed/Misted inhaler antibody, Cleaning compounds of a mild and human safe nature.

Proposals of oxygen and environment formula with a 5 to 15% higher O² and hydration with enzyme fluid dissolvers in small doses.

Potential therapies include compounds like icatibant, danazol, stanozolol, ecallantide, berinert, cinryze and haegarda, all of whose predicted effect is to reduce bradykinin levels in a patient.

Help the community discover cures & improve the community: https://is.gd/ProcessorLasso

https://spectrum.ieee.org/the-human-os/computing/hardware/has-the-summit-supercomputer-cracked-the-covid-code

Vaccine development:

https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/04/1062512
https://science.n-helix.com/2020/04/cern.html - Masks & Filters

SARS-CoV-2 genomes sequenced more than 100,000x :
Results are being automatically updated online as new genomes are reported (which now exceeds 50,000 samples and can be found at: http://igem.temple.edu/COVID-19


Genetic Tree trace:


Corona Vaccines :2020-07-21:
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)31605-6/fulltext

Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator
https://www.who.int/who-documents-detail/access-to-covid-19-tools-(act)-accelerator
https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/access-to-covid-19-tools-(act)-accelerator-call-to-action-24april2020.pdf?sfvrsn=5f721eaf_6&download=true

Financial response & State of health care & response:
Worth covering world health for emergency response WHO

Who.int information on WHO & UN world economy & financial backing of SARS2 Response:
https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/439617/COVID-19-health-financing-response-Europe.pdf

Commission approves €4 million Belgian scheme to support coronavirus related research and development projects:

https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_735

World insurers -Health:
https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/insights/2020/03/do-insurers-have-covid-19-covered.html

Belgium finance:
https://mtrconsult.com/news/reimbursement-covid-19-detection-test-belgium
https://www.belgium.be/en/health/healthcare_costs

Learn more SARS2:

https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses

https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/novel-coronavirus-china/questions-answers

https://www.un.org/coronavirus

https://ai_franc_boinc.nx7v.icu/wcg-openpandemics-covid-19-mise-%C3%A0-jour-du-projet-20-07-2020.html

We are the minority: China : UN : World
Solve data : https://is.gd/MicroAnonimaData

WHO OutBreak

WORLD Community Gains Nobel Prize for solving WORLD Raid Virus Event

https://apnews.com/b2810cebad305f66112a0c68be0f8c9a

https://apnews.com/VirusOutbreak

We are the minority: China : UN : World
Solve data : https://is.gd/MicroAnonimaData

Public awareness grows with new corona virus!:


https://www.bbc.com/news/world-51338899 - vaccine creation video & world statistics

Situation report WHO:

https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports/

Technical guidance WHO:

https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance

Information corona:


https://www.bbc.com/news/health-51214864 - Symptoms

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51176409 - Recovery Illness

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OZcRD9fV7jo&feature=emb_logo

https://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=15696:coronavirus&Itemid=4206&lang=en

https://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_jem&view=event&id=349:who-s-public-consultation-on-human-genome-editing&lang=en

high priority : https://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13708:migration-health-americas&Itemid=72502&lang=en

https://sacoronavirus.co.za/
https://sacoronavirus.co.za/contact/

Science facts corona:

https://spectrum.ieee.org/the-human-os/computing/hardware/has-the-summit-supercomputer-cracked-the-covid-code

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2820%2930211-7/fulltext

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2930211-7

Identifying active damage to bio systems with active virus

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30183-5/fulltext

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2930183-5

https://science.n-helix.com/2020/01/coronavirus.html

Rupert S https://science.n-helix.com


****

Quarantine a study in thought:


Various diseases we can potentially get rid of...

HPV Venereal Diseases ...

Gonaria ?

various others with short term life cycles...

Potentially short term venereal diseases, Are potentially got rid of in most of the world..
Problem being that they may well still exist in potential..

As you know women get cancer potentially from HPV & maybe males too?

2 weeks is potentially a majority clean system,
However we still need additional medicines & cures .. As potency still exists..

We do need to support projects covering diseases and deliver inoculations,
Families may need to be covered,
People may need vitamins to cover sunlight loss & physical fitness and frankly mental sanity.

***

HIV appearance & AID's are the mean sign in the isolation; WHO data & UN Data are big incites in the situation of Venereal disease prevention though the quarantine,In addition the discovery of AID's Symptoms furthers prevention; During this time of emergency,

Emergence Data for diseases is a WHO/UN/World Necessity,
In times of World AID Funds & International Disease control/Prevention,

Isolation is a unique study period and we have a very limited time to use the data.

https://www.who.int/health-topics/hiv-aids/#tab=tab_1

https://www.who.int/gho/hiv/epidemic_status/deaths_text/en/

https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/23-01-2020-statement-on-the-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)

Rupert S https://science.n-helix.com

https://science.n-helix.com/2020/04/cern.html - Masks & Filters

https://science.n-helix.com/2020/01/coronavirus.html

**

Human Papillomavirus | HPV

HPV (VD)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AZOnAuElJHk

https://www.healthline.com/health/human-papillomavirus-infection

**Project list

https://covid19-hpc-consortium.org/projects/5e86fdd9975d13007fa017ee
https://wcg.n-helix.com/
https://gpugrid.n-helix.com/about.php
https://boinc.n-helix.com/projects.php

**Resources

Amazingly <3 Folding@home
https://www.greencarcongress.com/2020/03/20200326-petrobras.html

https://www.theverge.com/2020/3/2/21161131/folding-home-volunteers-researchers-coronavirus

https://cen.acs.org/physical-chemistry/computational-chemistry/Consortia-lend-supercomputers-fight-COVID/98/i15

https://www.xsede.org/covid19-hpc-consortium

https://www.geekwire.com/2020/amazon-microsoft-join-white-house-team-unleash-high-performance-computing-covid-19/

https://midasnetwork.us/covid-19/

https://www.genomeweb.com/informatics/ibm-opens-informatics-toolkit-accelerate-covid-19-research-drug-development

https://www.anandtech.com/show/15653/ibm-partners-to-fight-covid19-with-supercomputers

https://www.hpcwire.com/2020/03/24/rosettahome-rallies-a-legion-of-computers-against-the-coronavirus/

https://www.hpcwire.com/2020/03/16/foldinghome-turns-its-massive-crowdsourced-computer-network-against-covid-19/

**Study data
https://www.hpcwire.com/off-the-wire/university-of-kansas-chemist-developing-3d-simulations-of-coronavirus-spike-proteins/

https://www.hpcwire.com/off-the-wire/wellai-develops-covid-19-research-tool-in-response-to-white-houses-call-to-action/

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Float, HLSL & SPIR-V Compiler Role

Float, HLSL & SPIR-V Compiler Role
(c)RS


Vulkan 1,1.2,1.3+ & DX10,11,12+ , HLSL & SPIR-V
Rule sets : Float,Vector,AVX,SiMD

General Instruction Optimisation Procedure  & Vulkan/DX Shader stack.

HLSL & SPIR-V Compilers jobs are to streamline code into efficient Float & SiMD,Vector,AVX Instruction sets that do the maths in the order most efficient for clock cycle use & Instruction load,store & set cycles.

HLSL & SPIR-V should be optimisation compiler sub-rules for valid Vector,AVX,SiMD instructions.
Complex maths is 90% going to be float & SiMD instruction are clock cycle optimiser's for uncomplicated maths with multiple vectors.

General Instruction Optimisation Procedure  & Vulkan/DX Shader stack.

Firstly the SiMD Shader base language is Assembler with script balanced scripting models

GPU: AMD,NVidia,STI,ARM,Intel ,RISC sets(IBM,Cisco,Del,HP,Fujitsu,Sun,Subset Micro-Processors,Thunder 2,CISC: AMD,Intel, IBM
(Others Exist.)

Basic instruction strategy of SiMD & Float adaptation of the main concerns for all programming models that funnel into SiMD/AVX/Vector & broadly Float..

HLSL,SPIR-V Code is a layer 2 abstraction over the code base Vectored Instruction Set,
Conceptually the baggage is imagining that there is a limitation to level 3 C Code..
Well as SiMD/Vector/AVX/Float is a Algebra maths formula, The basic solution is algebra.

Algebra is the super set within which Shader code exists as a subset of Float,
Understanding this fact is key to understanding the concept.

The role of the shader layer shall be divided into two parts:
Complex maths : (Integer, Float) & Simple Maths with multiple dataset values.

Firstly the Coder separates the two layers that solve the maths algebra.
(FLOAT)The complex maths Objects(Algebra) & (Vector,AVX,SiMD)the Vector rule set Objects.

Examples:
Polygon (float) Values = Result A,B,C & then Vector to tessellation
Preferably we have the polygons worked out and saved in ram & then we tessellate.

Vector Instruction: Memory Loaded Objects (A,B,C,D,Ecetera)
Instruction sets of bit swaps being common in Interpolation & Anti Aliasing for example.

Vector instruction sets : AVX are in principle to redice CPU Cycle count on multiple Object(A,B,C,D) Simple Maths without testing the rule sets.

The world of Vector involves Bit Swaps (More complex algebra)
& Simple Mul (Multiply) + - & Division /

Bit swapping data sets appears to be a key player in SiMD/AVX
So arguing about Float matters.. and the role of Vector instruction is clearly defined as increasing instruction count per clock cycle for a limited instruction set.

Understanding efficiency is the object of the compiler & we have to test the instruction speed & efficiency versus FLOAT..

Bit Swaps are 3 Float instruction cycles for example versus 1 in AVX; With series of Objects to swap,
Series of 4 for example.

Float &Integer maths Instructions:

Dimensional code such as 3D Polygons,Curves,Ellipses,FTT,Blast & Maths related to vectored noise reduction such as Analogue Vacuum Tube Maths; Indeed Ohms law for example.

So imagine a world where simple algebra is the law, So algebra is soon complicated & involves 3 roll loops.

For example:

For A = 3, C = EMC², D = Entropy, E = Energy

therfor A + B

B = ( G = ( F - ((D/C)+(E*C))))

Exumé Temré
Vector is to simplify cycle, Float is to explain the butterfly

https://science.n-helix.com/2019/05/compiler-optimisation.html

https://www.khronos.org/blog/hlsl-first-class-vulkan-shading-language

(c)Rupert Summerskill